The Power PCB must conduct a sizable quantity of current without sacrificing efficiency or power, unlike an overall PCB, which is frequently used for low-power components. The issue of the power electronics’ substantial footprint was resolved using power PCBs. The maximum current threshold and trace width that the power PCB should support are first calculated. Furthermore, the Power PCB needs to choose the right materials to control the heavy components. In order to prevent the PCB from being harmed by blunt physical force from control levers, high-power relays, & heavy-duty cable connectors, the board should not only support the weight but also hold it firmly in place.
A low resistance channel and a large amount of current carrying capacity are typically needed by the power electronics circuit. As a result, certain power converters must deal with interference & noise creation brought on by high-speed changing of high flows, which affects the other analog and digital circuits.
The main factors affecting the printed circuit board include:
- the amount of power flowing via the circuit;
- The temperature at which the board is operational;
- airflow rate impacting the board;
- The material used for manufacturing the PCB;
- The density of the components on the board.
It is crucial to first determine where on the printed circuit board (PCB) power components that produce a lot of heat, like voltage converters and power transistors, should be placed. It is not advisable to install power PCB components close to the board’s edges because doing so results in heat buildup and a considerable increase in temperature. Microcontrollers, CPUs, and FPGAs are examples of highly integrated digital parts that should be placed in the middle of the PCB to allow for homogeneous heat diffusion over the board and, as a result, a reduction in temperature. In any case, a linear type layout is preferred over concentrating the power components in one position to prevent the development of hot spots.